Circadian Rhythm Disorders
Circadian rhythms are changes in one’s physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. They are important in the determination of a person’s sleeping pattern such as when he sleeps and when he wakes up on a 24-hour cycle. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the body’s master clock that controls melatonin production, which is the “sleep” hormone. The SCN is located near the optic nerve thereby relaying information from the eyes to the brain. When there is less light, the SCN commands the brain to produce more melatonin to make a person sleepy.
Circadian Rhythm Clock
Circadian rhythms regulate the 24-hour phasing of a person’s processes where pattern of brain waves, cell generation, hormone production and other biological activities. A disruption in one’s circadian rhythm can affect his sleep-wake pattern, body temperature, hormone release and other vital bodily functions. It has been linked to sleep disorders such as insomnia and diseases such as obesity, bipolar disorder, depression, diabetes and obesity.
Circadian Rhythm Disorder: Causes
The circadian rhythm rises and dips at different times of a day. Usually this happens between 2:00 to 4:00 am and 1:00 to 3:00 pm for adults. Variations may occur as indicated if one is a “morning” or “evening” person. It is a fact that one is less likely to feel sleepy during the dips is he gets enough sleep and more intense if he is sleep deprived. The circadian rhythm also makes a person feel more alert and energetic at certain times of the day.
What may cause a disruption on a person’s circadian rhythm? It may be due to various factors such as: time zone changes; pregnancy; shift work; medications; changes in routine; medical problems and mental health problems.
Common Circadian Rhythm Disorders
Rapid time zone changes syndrome or jetlag is exhibited by excessive sleepiness and deficiency in daytime alertness. This is commonly seen in people who travel across time zones.
People who frequently rotate work or shifts at night (e.g. doctors, nurses) may develop shift work disorder.
Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome or ASPD is a disorder wherein a person sleeps and wakes earlier than desired. A person with this disorder will most likely sleep between 6:00 to 9:00 pm and wake up between 1:00 to 5:00 am.
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome or DSPS is a sleep timing disorder wherein a person falls asleep very late at night and has difficulty waking up in time for school, work or any other activity.
Non-24 Hour Sleep Wake Disorder is exhibited by totally blind persons since they cannot discern light -dark trigger of circadian rhythm clock. This results in decreased sleeping time and quality of sleep at night. Daytime sleepiness is a common occurrence.
A person with untreated sleep disorder may also develop circadian rhythm disorder if his sleep pattern is affected thereby leading to insomnia. There are several types of sleep disorder and one of them is sleep apnoea.
If you think you have a sleeping problem that needs to be assessed and addressed, call us now at CPAP Victoria. We have the qualification and experience to help you.